First Peoples: for Faculty and Administrators


“By listening to your story, my story can change. By listening to your story, I can change.”*


The University of Windsor sits on the traditional territory of the Three Fires Confederacy of First Nations, comprised of the Ojibway, the Odawa, and the Potawatomie.

Decolonizing usually starts with getting to know the culture(s) involved and understanding your position within your own culture and positionality within the framework of your own and other cultures. To begin familiarization, you may wish to read and act on suggestions found in Get Started.

Local Communities

See: Resources related to First Peoples Research Guide landing page

Student Voices

Culture shock, and how Mi'kmaw students cope with leaving the reserve for university (CBC)

Indigenous Education: The National Centre for Collaboration. (nd). Round Table on Indigenous Students' experiences in Post-Secondary education.

Indigenous Speaker Series University Youtube (Google Video search)

Indigenous Voices: students on their experiences at UBC

Indspire. (various dates). Research and Knowledge Nest Reports.

LSE Students Ask: Why is my curriculum white? (YouTube Video 20:35)

Making Mukluks and Connecting Cultures (TVO)

Taapwaywin: talking about what we know and what we believe (Podcast episodes)

For more voices see the Resources Related to First Peoples Research Guide landing page

Administrators Experiences, Context, and Challenges

Academic Integrity in Canada: An Enduring and Essential Challenge [e-book]

Baeza, A. (2024). Universities Accord: there’s a push to increase Indigenous students and voices in higher education. But we need more detail and fundingThe Conversation, (March 4, 2024). [Australia]

Canadian Commission for UNESCO. (2018). Indigenous Perspectives on Higher Education.

Ethnic Minority-Serving Institutions: Higher Education Case Studies from the United States and China [e-book]

Foster-Boucher, C., Nelson, J., Bremner, S., & Maykut, C. (2022). The importance of being uncomfortable and unfinished.

Lajeunesse, E.J., editor. (2019). The Windsor Border Region. [e-book; "an introduction to a series of documents relating to the exploration and settlement of Canada's southernmost frontier - the Detroit River region."]

Mullen, C. A. (2019). De/colonization: Perspectives on/by Indigenous populations in global Canadian contextsInternational journal of leadership in education, v. 23(6), 671–690.

National Indigenous University Senior Leaders’ Association

Pulling Together : Foundations [e-book]

Pulling Together : A Guide for Front-Line Staff, Student Services, and Advisors [e-book]

Pulling Together : A Guide for Leaders and Administrators [e-book]

Morin, Jean-Pierre. (2018). Solemn words and foundational documents : an annotated discussion of Indigenous-Crown treaties in Canada, 1752-1923. [useful history of 8 early treaties and Settler-Indigenous relationships]

Tricky grounds : Indigenous women's experiences in Canadian university administration [print book at Leddy]

Conducting Research

Contact ORIS (University of Windsor) before embarking on any research.

First Nations Data Centre/Centre de données des Premiêres Nations

First Nations Ethics Guide on Research Research and Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge. (For discussion purposes only). Assembly of First Nations. n.d.

First Nations Principles of OCAP®

Guidelines for the Merit Review of Aboriginal Research.  Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 2018.

Hotte, N. (2016). Respectful research with Indigenous communities: A non-Indigenous researcher’s experience. branchlines 27(3), 8-9.

Indigenous Research. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 2016.

Indigenous Research at Memorial University "responding to the principles of Indigenous ownership, control, access and possession (OCAP®) of Indigenous data."

Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW) Database

Popp, J. Want to reach out to an Indigenous scholar? Awesome! But first, here are 10 things to consider. The Conversation. Oct. 28, 2021.

Reconciling research: Perspectives on research involving Indigenous Peoples-Part 1 [special issue]. International Indigenous Policy Journal v. 8 no. 2, 2017.

Reconciling research: Perspectives on research involving Indigenous Peoples-Part 2 [special issue]. International Indigenous Policy Journal v. 8 no. 4, 2018.

Research Ethics Board. Education and Research. University of Windsor.

Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada. In Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2022.

Universities Canada Principles on Indigenous Education.

On Curriculum

Please note a search of Leddy's catalogue should produce books and articles on Indigenous pedagogy, methodology and theory for your subject area. Universities, prior to learning management systems, used to make their syllabi freely available online and some may still be found using any search engine. Just add the word syllabus to your search.

After doing research to understand the issues facing Indigenous persons, and Indigenous students in the classroom, you should then contact the Centre for Teaching and Learning's (CTL) Learning Specialist, Indigenization, and check out their Indigenous Knowledges page.

Absolon, K. E. (2008). Kaandosswin, this is how we come to know! Indigenous graduate research in the academy: Worldviews and methodologies. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Adams, Jodie, et al, (2018). Our Stories : First Peoples in Canada. Toronto: Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology. [eTextbook]

Alberta Education (n.d.). First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Education: Supporting Student Success.

Bell, Nicole. (2014). Teaching by the Medicine Wheel: An Anishinaabe Framework for Indigenous Education. Education Canada

Canadian Federation of Students. (2021). Factsheet: Indigenous education.

Cote-Meek, Sheila; Moeke-Pickering, Taima. (2023). Perspectives on Indigenous Pedagogy in Education : Learning from One Another.

Cutrara, S. (2018). The Settler Grammar of Canadian History Curriculum: Why Historical Thinking Is Unable to Respond to the TRC’s Calls to Action. Canadian Journal of Education / Revue canadienne de l’éducation 41(1), 250-275.

FNESC. First Peoples Principles of Learning.

Guinan, D. (2016). The Social Environment and Indigenous Student Success in a Canadian Post-secondary Institution (Doctoral dissertation, Royal Roads University (Canada).

Hokowhitu, Brendan, Moreton-Robinson, Aileen, Smith, Linda Tuhiwai, Andersen, Chris, Larkin, Steve (Professor), (eds.). (2021). Routledge handbook of critical indigenous studies. [e-book]

Indigenous Education: The National Centre for Collaboration. (2018). Round Table on Integrating Indigenous Knowledge into the Academy with Elders and Educators at Trent University. [video]

Indigenous Education Protocol. Colleges and Institutes Canada.

Iseke-Barnes, J.M. (2008). Pedagogies for decolonizing. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 31(1), 123-148.

Kennedy, J., Thomas, L., Percy, A., Dean, B., Delahunty, J., Harden-Thew, K., & de Laat, M. (2019). An Aboriginal way towards curriculum reconciliation. International Journal for Academic Development, 24(2), 148-162. doi:10.1080/1360144X.2019.1593172

Kirkness, Verna, & Barnhardt, R. (2001). First Nations and Higher Education: The Four R's -Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity, Responsibility. In Hayoe, R. and J. Pan, Knowledge Across Cultures: A Contribution to Dialogue Among Civilizations. Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.

Layton, Jaclyn. (2023). First Nations youth: Experiences and outcomes in secondary and postsecondary learning. Statistics Canada.

Lee, D. (2008). Indigenous knowledges and the university library. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 31(1), 149.

McKinley, Elizabeth Ann ; Smith, Linda Tuhiwai; Smith, Linda Tuhiwai ; McKinley, Elizabeth Ann. (2019). Handbook of Indigenous Education. [e-book]

Munroe, E. A., Lunney-Borden, L., Murray-Orr, A., Toney, D., & Meader, J. (2013). Decolonizing Aboriginal education in the 21st century. McGill Journal of Education/Revue des sciences de l'éducation de McGill, 48(2).

National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation

Nipissing University. Enji giigdoyang – Office of Indigenous Initiatives. Presentations, Papers and Reports

Pete, Shawnee. 100 ways to Indigenize and decolonize academic programs and courses. URegina

Poitras Pratt, Yvonne, Bodnaresko, Sulyn, (eds.). (2023). Truth and reconciliation through education : stories of decolonizing practices. [print book]

Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global [largest database of Indigenous content that I am aware of at this time]

Smith, Michael V. (2011). "Native Education in Ontario: Problems, Solutions, and Implementation." Undergraduate Journal of Native Studies• Dbaajmowin (2011): 103.

ReconciliAction Resources (Danielle Bitz, University of Saskatchewan. University Library)

Restoule, J. (2011). Looking for a Way in: Aboriginal Youth Talk about Access to University in Ontario. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 31(2), 47-62,189. 

Richard, A. L. (2011). Setting good footprints: Reconstructing wholistic success of indigenous students in higher education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba).

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 

Scheithauer (Niemiec), K. (2015). Rediscovering Indigenous Knowledge in Contemporary Canada. Transcanadiana, (7), 196-214.

Transforming Relations: A Collaborative Collection

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Reports in Accessible Formats

Truth and Reconciliation Response Projects (University of Waterloo)

YouthREX. (2023?). Evidence brief: Practices to Support Improved Educational Outcomes for Indigenous Youth.

Decolonizing and Indigenizing the Academy

You should also contact the Centre for Teaching and Learning's (CTL) Learning Specialist, Indigenization, and check out the Indigenous Knowledges page. 

Allan, B., et al. (2018). Pulling Together: A guide for Indigenization of post-secondary institutions. BCCampus Open Education.

BCcampus Indigenization Project 

Canadian Association of University Teachers. Indigenizing the Academy.

Gaudry, A., & Lorenz, D. E. (2018). Decolonization for the masses?: Grappling with Indigenous content requirements in the changing Canadian post-secondary environment. In Indigenous and decolonizing studies in education (pp. 159-174). Routledge.

Gaudry, A., & Lorenz, D. (2018). Indigenization as inclusion, reconciliation, and decolonization: Navigating the different visions for Indigenizing the Canadian Academy. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, 14(3), 218-227.

Kerr, J., Malcolm, M., & Swan, K. (2022). Navigating colonial space: A case study of an Indigenous student-led decolonial movement in Canadian higher educationJournal of Higher Education Theory and Practice22(16), 217-231.

Munroe, Ian. (2021). Where truth and reconciliation stand at Canadian universities. University Affairs Affaires universitaires. August 18, 2021. Accessed August 25, 2021.

Ottmann, J. (2013). Indigenizing the Academy: Confronting “Contentious Ground.” The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis, 40 (3-4), 8-24.

Selection of University Reports on Indigenization

University of Windsor: 

Shingwauk Residential Schools Centre

University of Toronto: Indigenous U of T. Initiatives & Protocols

Western University: various reports

Wilfrid Laurier University: Indigenous Strategic Plan: Principles for Indigenization, Reconciliation and Decolonization.

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    *Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future : summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, p. 21.

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